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Tozzi, however, belongs psychologically and stylistically to the 20th century.

Italian literature

Giovanni Carsaniga Anthony Oldcorn. After unification the new Italy was preoccupied with practical problems, and by the early 20th century a great deal of reasonably successful effort had been directed toward raising living standards, promoting social harmony, and healing the split between church and state. It was in this prosaic and pragmatic atmosphere that the middle classes—bored with the unheroic and positivist spirit of former decades—began to feel the need for a new myth. At a distance from those times, it should be possible to evaluate D'Annunzio more clearly. Benedetto Croce Croce, Benedetto 's criticism.

Although D'Annunzio's fame was worldwide, the function of modernizing intellectual life fell mainly to Benedetto Croce Croce, Benedetto in almost 70 books and in the bimonthly review La Critica — Perhaps his most influential work was his literary criticism , which he expounded and continually revised in articles and books spanning nearly half a century. Croce's beliefs implied condemnation of fascism's ideology, but he was not seriously molested by the fascist regime, and through the darkest days La Critica remained a source of encouragement to at least a restricted circle of freedom-loving intellectuals.

Unfortunately, his highly systematized approach to criticism led to a certain rigidity and a refusal to recognize the merits of some obviously important writers, and this was undoubtedly one reason why after World War II his authority waned. His monumental corpus of philosophical, critical, and historical works of great scholarship, humour, and common sense remains, however, the greatest single intellectual feat in the history of modern Italian culture. While Croce was starting his arduous task, literary life revolved mainly around reviews such as Leonardo , Hermes , La Voce , and Lacerba , founded and edited by relatively small literary coteries.

The two main literary trends were crepuscolarismo the Twilight School , which , in reaction to the high-flown rhetoric of D'Annunzio, favoured a colloquial style to express dissatisfaction with the present and memories of sweet things past, as in the work of Guido Gozzano Gozzano, Guido and Sergio Corazzini, and Futurismo Futurism , which rejected everything traditional in art and demanded complete freedom of expression. Both trends shared a feeling of revulsion against D'Annunzian flamboyance and magniloquence, from which they attempted to free themselves.

The end of World War I saw a longing for the revival of tradition, summed up in the aims of the review La Ronda , founded in by the poet Vincenzo Cardarelli Cardarelli, Vincenzo and others, which advocated a return to classical stylistic values. This led to an excessive cult of form in the narrow sense—as exemplified by the elegant but somewhat bloodless essays elzeviri published in Italian newspapers on page three—and obviously fitted in with the stifling of free expression under fascism.

The sterility of this period, however, should not be exaggerated. The 20 years of fascist rule were hardly conducive to creativity, but in the dark picture there were a few glimmers of light.

Meanwhile, the Florentine literary reviews Solaria , Frontespizio , and Letteratura , while having to tread carefully with the authorities, provided an outlet for new talent. The controversial Ignazio Silone Silone, Ignazio , having chosen exile, could speak openly in Fontamara Luigi Pirandello Pirandello, Luigi.


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Drama, which a few playwrights and producers were trying to extricate from old-fashioned realistic formulas and the more recent superhuman theories of D'Annunzio, was increasingly dominated by Luigi Pirandello Pirandello, Luigi. From initial short-story writing, in which he explored the incoherence of personality, the lack of communication between individuals, the uncertain boundaries between sanity and insanity or reality and appearance, and the relativity of truth, he turned to drama as a better means of expressing life's absurdity and the ambiguous relationship between fact and fiction.

To multiply the fragmentation of levels of reality, Pirandello tried to destroy conventional dramatic structures and to adopt new ones: a play within a play in Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore ; Six Characters in Search of an Author and a scripted improvisation in Questa sera si recita a soggetto ; Tonight We Improvise.

This was a way of transferring the dissociation of reality from the plane of content to that of form, thereby achieving an almost perfect unity between ideas and dramatic structure. Pirandello's plays, including perhaps his best, Enrico IV ; Henry IV , often contain logical arguments: several critics, including Croce, were misled into thinking that he intended to express in this way a coherent philosophy, whereas he used logic as a dramatic symbol.

Pirandello was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Hermetic Hermeticism movement. Poetry in the fascist period underwent a process of involution, partly influenced by French Symbolism Symbolist movement , with its faith in the mystical power of words, and partly under the stress of changed political conditions after World War I, during which literature had declined.

Out of those efforts grew a poetry combining the acoustic potentialities of words with emotional restraint and consisting mainly of fragmentary utterances in which words were enhanced by contextual isolation and disruption of syntactic and semantic links. The resultant obscurity compensated poets for loss of influence in a society subservient to dictatorship by turning them into an elite and allowed some, notably Eugenio Montale Montale, Eugenio who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in , to express their pessimism covertly. The model for these poets was Giuseppe Ungaretti Ungaretti, Giuseppe.

In these poems each word is pronounced in isolation, as if a petrified, shell-shocked language had to be invented from scratch. This allusive and hieratic poetry recovers many elements of the tradition and couches them in a splendid but opaque diction. Thus, what in the s had appeared revolutionary proved later to be only another facet of the formalistic Petrarchan tradition. Against this background of refinement, obscurity, and unreality, only the simple and moving poems of the Triestine poet Umberto Saba Saba, Umberto preserved an immediate appeal.

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Social commitment and the new realism Neorealism. Ungaretti's style became so intricate as to be almost unrecognizable as his own. This development had been foreshadowed by some writers under fascism. In Alberto Moravia Moravia, Alberto had written a scathing indictment of middle-class moral indifference, Gli indifferenti ; Time of Indifference.

Certain English authors, the homegrown veristi , and the ideas of Marxism were also an influence on postwar authors, to whom in varying degrees the rather imprecise label of Neorealism applied also to postwar Italian cinema was attached. It was a stimulating time in which to write, with a wealth of unused material at hand. The Estate in Abruzzi ]. The Naked Streets ] and Metello [; Eng. The Priest Among the Pigeons.

In contrast to the more topical appeal of these writings, the great virtue of Pavese's narrative was the universality of its characters and themes. Literary tastes gradually became less homogeneous. On the one hand, there was the rediscovery of the experimentalism of Carlo Emilio Gadda Gadda, Carlo Emilio , whose best works had been written between and For this reason, it is easier to see Italian writing in terms of individual territory rather than general trends.

Similar authors to follow

Giorgio Bassani Bassani, Giorgio 's domain is the sadly nostalgic world of Ferrara in days gone by, with particular emphasis on its Jewish community Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini [; The Garden of the Finzi-Continis ]. Italo Calvino Calvino, Italo concentrated on fantastic tales Il visconte dimezzato [; The Cloven Viscount ], Il barone rampante [; The Baron in the Trees ], and Il cavaliere inesistente [; The Nonexistent Knight ] and, later, on moralizing science fiction Le cosmicomiche [; Cosmicomics ] and Ti con zero [; t zero ].


  1. Italian literature.
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  3. Portrait dun amour coupable (Littérature) (French Edition).
  4. Novale : Federigo Tozzi : .
  5. DIARIO DI FEDERIGO TOZZI DOCUMENT Original (PDF).
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  7. DIARIO DI FEDERIGO TOZZI DOCUMENT Original (PDF).
  8. Paolo Volponi's province is the human consequences of Italy's rapid postwar industrialization Memoriale [], La macchina mondiale [; The Worldwide Machine ], and Corporale []. A Man's Blessing ]. Antonio in Love ]. Natalia Ginzburg Ginzburg, Natalia 's territory is the family, whether she reminisces about her own Lessico famigliare [; Family Sayings ] , handles fictional characters Famiglia [; Family ] , or ventures into historical biography La famiglia Manzoni [; The Manzoni Family ].

    Meanwhile, Alberto Moravia and Mario Soldati defended their corners as never less than conspicuously competent writers.