Manual Reclamation

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A linguistic analysis of a notorious pronunciation Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Build a city of skyscrapers—one synonym at a time. Login or Register. Save Word. Log In. Definition of reclamation. Synonyms Example Sentences Learn More about reclamation.


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Keep scrolling for more. Synonyms for reclamation Synonyms recapture , recoupment , recovery , repossession , retrieval Visit the Thesaurus for More. Examples of reclamation in a Sentence pumped water out of the field as part of the land reclamation program designed to provide farmers with more farmland. Recent Examples on the Web What Bichette did next was sign with a franchise known for accepting reclamation projects and players with interesting backgrounds.

First Known Use of reclamation , in the meaning defined above. Learn More about reclamation. Resources for reclamation Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared. Time Traveler for reclamation The first known use of reclamation was in See more words from the same year. As conditions of climate, geology and soil type differ enormously over the USSR, specific approaches to reclamation have to be adapted from region to region.


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  • In the Ukrainian SSR surface mining disturbs fertile chernozem soils that are used extensively for agriculture. Either the upper layers of the soil the black A 1 horizon are replaced on the surface to form the growth substrate or, in some areas, it has been found that the lower loess deposits are more fertile and these are held back for surface spreading. Usually legumes are sown first, and where these are used as green manures high yields of winter wheat Triticum aestivum and other crops are obtained Novikova and Savitch, In the Ukraine forty species of woody plants have been established on coal spoil, including elm Ulmus spp.

    Layers of soil, peat or organic wastes have been used, in conjunction with fertilizers, to improve the chemical and physical condition. In the USA, area and contour strip-mining are widely practised for coal gaining. Considerable expertise has been built up on the technological and biological aspects of reclamation and many good summaries of all aspects of this work exist Hutnik and Davis, ; Grim and Hill, ; Schaller and Sutton, ; Bradshaw and Chadwick, ; Sendlein, Yazicigil and Carlson, In particular, the mechanization of reclamation has been developed and hydraulic sprinklers, hydraumatic seeding and the aerial application of fertilizer and seed have been extensively applied.

    Keren, in Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment , Reclamation of a sodic soil without amendments is possible when a soil source of Ca exists e. The rate at which CaCO 3 dissolution in water approaches equilibrium is dependent upon a number of factors, which include the surface area-to-solution volume ratio, the ionic composition of the solution, the ion composition of the adsorbed phase, affinity of the clay minerals to cations, the temperature, and the partial pressure of CO 2 in the soil atmosphere.

    Hong Kong land reclamation explained: the good, bad and ugly methods of pushing back the sea

    In general, a supersaturation with respect to calcite is observed in solution extracts from calcareous soils. In soils, the kinetics of CaCO 3 dissolution is not a simple diffusion-controlled or first-order reaction. In these calcareous systems, the transfer of atmospheric CO 2 to solution is a limiting step in the kinetics of dissolution.

    Moreover, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution of CaCO 3 have not yet been modeled for soil water systems. Soil CaCO 3 may be dissolved slowly to contribute Ca but its solubility is enhanced in saline sodic soils. Moreover, incorporation of fresh organic matter in calcareous soil increases native calcium carbonate mineral dissolution, owing to elevation of CO 2 partial pressure in the soil atmosphere, and therefore significantly enhances sodic soil reclamation rate Figure 3.

    When soil physical conditions have deteriorated and HC of the soil is so low that the time required for reclamation or the amount of amendment required is excessive or if a sodic soil is to be leached with a water so low in salinity that water infiltration decreases adversely, the use of the high-salt water-dilution method may be applied.

    The method involves application of successive dilutions of highly saline water containing divalent cations. This principle has been tested successfully in experiments, and reclamation at various stages of leaching can now be predicted. In the early phase, the high salinity of the water prevents clay dispersion and induces flocculation of the soil colloids, the Ca content provides a source of Ca for exchange with Na, and the sodicity level decreases.

    On dilution with high-quality water, the sodium adsorption ratio of the irrigation water is reduced by the square root of the dilution factor. When sufficient water is applied at each step of dilution, then, to ensure exchange equilibrium to the desired depth, the total equivalent surface depth of water for reclamation should be about nine times the depth of soil to be reclaimed.

    The method is particularly effective for soils of the expanding-clay type, which have extremely low soil HC. Levy, I. Shainberg, in Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment , Reclamation of sodic soils, which is the mending of soil structure, is essential if productivity is to be maintained.

    The main concept for reclamation of sodic soils advocates the addition of a source of Ca for replacing exchangeable Na coupled with excess water to leach the Na from the root zone deep into the soil profile. Less common methods include the addition of a variety of organic ameliorants to maintain high levels of organic matter in the soil and thus stabilize its structure. Reclaiming sodic soils via the addition of divalent cations can be achieved by using chemical amendments that release Ca ions to the soil, or by applying successive dilutions of high-salt water containing divalent cations.

    Typical amendments are those containing a source of soluble Ca or that dissolve Ca on reaction in the soil. Common amendments include gypsum, lime, CaCl 2 , sulfuric acid, and sulfur. Gypsum CaSO 4 , from both geological and nongeological sources industries that produce CaSO 4 by-products , is the most commonly used amendment for sodic soil reclamation , primarily because of its low cost, reasonable solubility, and availability. Gypsum added to a sodic soil can increase its permeability by means of both EC and cation-exchange effects.

    The electrolyte effect is important during application of water with extremely low EC. The cation exchange effect is important in soils where treating high ESP of the soil profile is important. The amount of gypsum required depends on the amount of exchangeable Na in a selected depth of soil. The efficiency and rate of exchange, namely the percentage of Ca that exchanges for adsorbed Na, vary with ESP, being much greater at initially high ESP values. A number of GR models exist, and provide a powerful tool for quantitative predictions of water and gypsum required to reclaim a soil to a predetermined level of sodicity.

    The use of CaCO 3 to reclaim sodic soils is considered to be of limited value, mainly because of its low solubility and low dissolution rate.

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    Naturally occurring CaCO 3 may help soil reclamation by maintaining EC in the soil solution at a level high enough to prevent clay dispersion and a subsequent reduction in soil HC. However, because of its low solubility, CaCO 3 is not effective in maintaining high permeability at the soil surface during rain. In areas where water is not a limiting factor, reclamation of sodic soils can be obtained by leaching the soil with successive dilutions of high-salt water containing divalent cations. In the early stage of the leaching, the high EC in the applied water prevents clay dispersion and induces flocculation of the soil colloids.

    Simultaneously, the Ca ions in the water decrease sodicity by replacing exchangeable Na.

    Reclamation Archives - National Mining Association

    Upon dilution of the saline water with high-quality water, the SAR of the water is reduced. To ensure successful soil reclamation, the depth of water added should be at least 9—10 times the depth of soil to be reclaimed. Lulu Qiao, Most reclamation took place at the head of JZB between and , with Hongdao Island being connected to the mainland.

    To evaluate the effect of the Hongdao Channel on the environmental change, a three-dimensional barotropic model based on the FVCOM was set up Gao et al. According to the numerical experiments, the effects of tidal-flat and Hongdao Island reclamation between and were identified. The M 2 -M 4 tidal-duration asymmetry in JZB was significantly more affected by the reclamation of tidal flats than by the connection of Hongdao Island to the mainland Gao et al. Furthermore, the tidal asymmetry change caused by the loss of tidal flats and by Hongdao Island-mainland connection was not simply a linear summation of individual changes caused by the two events Gao et al.

    A debate has taken place in recent years on whether an artificial channel should be engineered across the Hongdao Peninsula to improve circulation and overall water quality in northeastern JZB. This case study showed that restoring the Hongdao Chanel will not significantly change the hydrodynamic processes of the bay, thus it will not be a good investment to improve the environment.

    k2digital.com/916.php Shainberg, G. Levy, in Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment , The reclamation of sodic soils depends on the supply of Ca salts to replace exchangeable sodium and in maintaining adequate soil salinity to counteract the adverse effect of sodicity on the hydraulic properties of the soils.

    Gypsum, either incorporated into the soil or left on the soil surface, is the calcium source most commonly used to reclaim sodic soils and to improve soil water infiltration that has been decreased by low salinities. Sources include mineral deposits and phosphogypsum, a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry. When gypsum is incorporated into the soil, the reduction in ESP upon irrigation and leaching is primarily limited to the soil depth interval where gypsum is present.

    This is a consequence of the greater selectivity of exchange sites for calcium than for sodium. The gypsum required for reclamation can be estimated from the amount of exchangeable sodium in the soil layer to be reclaimed — the gypsum requirement concept. Since the soil surface is most susceptible to sodicity, reclamation of sodic soils by spreading phosphogypsum at the soil surface is being practiced in Israel.

    This prevents seal formation and maintains high infiltration rates which, in turn, provide sufficient infiltration of rainfall to leach salts from the root zone. Dissolution of the gypsum provides enough electrolytes to prevent seal formation and maintain high infiltration rates in spite of the fact that the soil surface is not completely reclaimed.

    This management in the rainy season, coupled with adequate irrigation with the saline-sodic water to meet crop needs during the summer months, results in cotton yields that are similar to those obtained when nonsaline water is used for irrigation. Alejandro Cearreta, Ana Pascual, in Elsevier Oceanography Series , Marsh reclamation , for agricultural purposes and disease eradication, was initiated in the 17 th century, although it was intense from the second half of the 19 th century.

    Rivas and Cendrero concluded that reclamation of estuarine wetlands has been, by far, the main factor affecting geomorphologic evolution along this coastline, during the last two centuries.

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    At the same time, nearby iron ore exploitation led to the construction of a mineral loading dock on the estuary mouth. The latter used microfossil proxies to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the uppermost estuarine infilling. Sedimentation rates deduced by Pb indicate 1. Ever since, periodical dredging operations have deposited the dredged sandy material within the estuary in both inter- and supratidal areas, and sandy and muddy environments alike.